Chapter 4.

Text Basics 4.1.2.

<html>
<body>
This is the first paragraph, at the very beginning of the
body of this document.
<p>
The tag above signals the start of this second paragraph.
When rendered by a browser, it will begin slightly below the
end of the first paragraph, with a bit of extra white space
between the two paragraphs.
<p>
This is the last paragraph in the example.
</body>
</html>
412

4.1.2.2. The align attribute

<html>
<body>
<p align=right>
Right over here!
<br>
This is too.
<p align=left>
Slide back left.
<p align=center>
Smack in the middle.
</p>
Left is the default.
</body>
</html>

4122

4.2.1.1. The align attribute

<html>
<body>
<h1 align=right>Right over here!</h1>
<h2 align=left>Slide back left.</h2>
<h3 align=center>Smack in the middle.</h3>
</body>
</html>
4211

4.2.2. Appropriate Use of Headings

4.2.3. Using Headings for Smaller Text

<html>
<head>
<title>Kumquat Farming in North America</title>
</head>
<body>
<h3>Kumquat Farming in North America</h3>
<p>
Perhaps one of the most enticing of all fruits is the…
resulting in years of successful kumquat production
throughout North America.
</p>
<h6>This document copyright 1995 by the Kumquat Growers of
America. All rights reserved. </h6>
</body>
</html>
423

4.4.3. The <cite> Tag <html>
<body>
While kumquats are not mentioned in Melville’s
<cite>Moby Dick</cite>, it is nonetheless apparent
that the mighty cetacean represents the bitter
“kumquat-ness” within every man. Indeed, when Ahab
spears the beast, its flesh is tough, much like the noble fruit.
</body>
</html>

443

4.4.4. The <code> Tag

<html>
<body>
The array reference <code>a[i]</code> is identical to
the pointer reference <code>*(a+i)</code>.
</body>
</html>

444

4.4.5. The <dfn> Tag

<html>
<body>
When analyzing annual crop yields, <dfn>rind spectroscopy</dfn> may prove useful.
By comparing the relative levels of saturated hydrocarbons in fruit from adjacent
trees, rind spectroscopy has been shown to be 87% effective in predicting an
outbreak of trunk dropsy in trees under four years old.
</body>
</html>
445

<html>
<body>
Kumquat growers must <em>always</em> refer to kumquats
as “the noble fruit,” <em>never</em> as just a “fruit.”
</body>
</html>
4451

4.4.7. The <kbd> Tag

<html>
<body>
Type <kbd>quit</kbd> to exit the utility, or type
<kbd>menu</kbd> to return to the main menu.
</body>
</html>

4471
4.4.8. The <samp> Tag
<html>
<body>
The <samp>ae</samp> character sequence may be converted
to the &aelig; ligature if desired.
</body>
</html>
4481

4.4.9. The <strong> Tag
<html>
<body>
One should <em>never</em> make a disparaging remark
about the noble fruit. In particular, mentioning
kumquats in conjunction with vulgar phrases is
expressly <strong>forbidden</strong> by the Association
bylaws.
</body>
</html>
4491

4.4.10. The <var> Tag
<html>
<head>
The user should type
<pre>
cp <var>source-file</var> <var>dest-file</var>
</pre>
replacing the <var>source-file</var> with the name of
the source file, and <var>dest-file</var> with the name
of the destination file.
</body>
</html>
44101

4.5.15. Summary of Physical Style Tags

<html>
<head>
Explicitly <b>boldfaced</b>, <i>italicized</i>, or
<tt>teletype-style</tt> text should be used
<big><big>sparingly</big></big>.
Otherwise, drink <strike>lots</strike> 1×10<sup>6</sup>
drops of H<sub><small><small>2</small></small></sub>O.
</body>
</html>
45151

4.6.2. The <basefont> Tag (Deprecated)
<html>
<body>
Unless the base font size was reset above,
Inernet Explorer renders this part in font size 3.
<basefont size=7>
This text should be rather large (size 7).
<basefont size=6> Oh,
<basefont size=4> no!
<basefont size=2> I’m
<basefont size=1> shrinking!
</basefont><br>
Ahhhh, back to normal.
</body>
</html>

4622

4.6.3.1. The size attribute
<html>
<body>
<p>
<font size=7>C</font>all me Ishmael.
</body>
</html>

4631

<html>
<body>
<p>
<font size=1>
All rights reserved. Unauthorized redistribution of this document is
prohibited. Opinions expressed herein are those of the authors, not the
Internet Service Provider.
</body>
</html>

4631

<html>
<body>
<p>
Make sure you <font size=+1>always</font> sign and date the form!
</body>
</html>

46311

<html>
<body>
<p>
The ghost moaned, “oo<font size=+1>oo<font size=+2>oo<font
size=+3>oo</font>oo</font>oo</font>oo.”
</body>
</html>

46312

4.6.3.2. The color attribute
<html>
<body>
Here comes the <font color=”#FFFF00″>sun</font>!
Here comes the <font color=yellow>sun</font>!
</body>
</html>

4632

4.6.3.3. The face attribute
<html>
<body>
This text is in the default font. But,
<font face=”Braggadocio, Machine, Zapf Dingbats”>
heaven only knows</font>
what font face is this one?
</body>
</html>

4633

4.7.1. The <br> Tag
<html>
<body>
<h3>
Heartbreak Hotel</h3>
<p>
Ever since my baby left me<br>
I’ve found a new place to dwell.<br>
It’s down at the end of lonely street<br>
Called <cite>Heartbreak Hotel</cite>.
</p>
</body>
</html>

471

4.7.1.1. The clear attribute
<html>
<body>
<img src=”kumquat.gif” align=left>
This text should wrap around the image, flowing between the
image and the right margin of the document.
<br clear=left>
This text will flow as well, but will be below the image,
extending across the full width of the page. There will
be white space above this text and to the right of the
image.
Paragraph tags separate leading and following
text flow from the captions.
<p>
I’m the caption on top of the image.
<br />
<img src=”kumquat.gif” align=”absmiddle”/>
This one’s centered on the right.
<br clear=”left” />
This caption should be directly below the image.
</p>
<p>
</body>
</html>

4711

4.7.2. The <nobr> Tag
<html>
<body>
When prompted by the computer, enter
<nobr>
<tt>find . -name \*.html -exec rm \{\}\;</tt>.
</nobr>
After a few moments, the load on your server will begin
to diminish and will eventually drop to zero.
</body>
</html>

472

4.7.3. The <wbr> Tag
<html>
<body>
<p>
<nobr>
This is a very long sequence of text that is
forced to be on a single line, even if doing so causes
<wbr>
the browser to extend the document window beyond the
size of the viewing pane and the poor user must scroll right
<wbr>
to read the entire line.
</nobr>
</body>
</html>

473

4.7.5. The <pre> Tag
<html>
<body>
<p>
The processing program is:
<pre>
main(int argc, char **argv)

{ FILE *f;
int i;

if (argc != 2)
fprintf(stderr, “usage: %s &lt;file&gt;\n”,
argv[0]);
<a href=”http:process.c”>process</a>(argv[1]);
exit(0);
}
</pre>
</body>
</html>

475

4.7.6. The <center> Tag (Deprecated)
<html>
<body>
<center>
<nobr>
Copyright 1995 by QuatCo Enterprises.<wbr>
All rights reserved.
</nobr>
</center>
</body>
</html>

476

4.8.1. The <blockquote> Tag
<html>
<body>
We acted incorrectly in arbitrarily changing the Kumquat
Festival date. Quoting from the Kumquat Growers’ Bylaws:
<blockquote>
The date of the Kumquat Festival may only be changed by
a two-thirds vote of the General Membership, provided
that a <strong>60 percent quorum</strong> of the Membership
is present.
</blockquote>
(Emphasis mine) Since such a quorum was not present, the
vote is invalid.
</body>
</html>

481

4.9.1. The <address> Tag
<html>
<body>
<address>
<a href=”mailto:webmaster@oreilly.com”>Webmaster</a><br>
O’Reilly & Associates, Inc.<br>
Cambridge, Massachusetts<br>
</address>
</body>
</html>

491